Decks, large outdoor areas, and parking in Gross Floor Area for EC Intensity?

Hi All,

Is anyone aware of how/whether LCA’s typically include the area of elements like balconies, a large uncovered deck, or parking in a project’s gross floor area for assessing whole-building GWP impacts?

We are doing LCAs that include parking structures, balconies, partial interiors (e.g. warm shell), etc., but this definition of Gross Floor Area from USGBC seems to exclude uncovered exterior space, so I’m not sure whether GFA typically includes these.

The best option I can think of is to provide separate areas for each portion of the building so that we can understand EC intensity by portion (e.g. enclosure, area with interior finishes, and maybe conditioned and unconditioned area). Then we could use the whole “usable area” (conditioned and unconditioned) for an overall EC intensity - with ability to filter by what all contributed to that intensity.

Curious to hear your thoughts.


Great question - I’m curious if we can lean on IBC definitions for building area? It would be great for us to help harmonize with established code language!